Animals in Pieniny
The huge diversity of habitats, specific chalky soil, rich vegetation and the extensive use of forests and non-forest land of great wealth causes the existence of any animal in Pieniny. The latest list of them living in the Pieniny National Park has about 7,317 species. It is assumed that the total number of animals inhabiting the Pieniny childbearing within 13 thousand. species, accounting for half of all animals known in Poland. To date, there was the presence of 7,021 species of invertebrates, including 6,021 species are insects.
Shellfish - in the Pieniny PN were found to have about 110 kinds of land snails - 60% of known Polish territory, two species of molluscs and three species of aquatic snails. 41 of them are typical mountain species, predominately subendemity and endemics. For endemics include: Oxychiulis deubeli and Vitrea transsilvanica - they are endemic of East. But the most interesting species is Chilostoma rossmaessleri - one of the Western-Carpathian endemic, found only in Poland in the Tatra and Pieniny mountains (Pieniny Valley Stream, on the border of the band sprout from the forest in damp and shaded). The best for the snails to life is a collection of Carpathian beech forest, which resides in the Pieniny vast majority of these species. Very moist banks of streams, ravines and lush undergrowth and murszejące then provide them with a very diversified food and shelter. Specific, typically are sunlit habitat Pieniny limestone rocks, on rocks covered with grass. Occurring here is a species of snails xerophilic and thermophilic.They live only in the Pieniny: Pyramidula rupestris, Pupilla sterri, Chondrina client and rare Pupilla Triplicate.
Earthworms - within the limits of 90 species, is 27% of the known on Polish territory, mainly common. 30 species are aquatic earthworms. The most specific skąposzczetów fauna is characterized by coastal streams and hollows romusz. Among the particularly rare species of Enchytraeidae are Trichodrilus cernosvitovi known in Poland only, and T. moravicus Pieniny Pieniny addition it found only in schodnich Sudetenland. Throughout the Carpathians only can be found in the Pieniny Rhyacodrilus falciformis, Branchiobdella parasite and Peloscolex benedeni. Of the land is a significant group skąposzczetów występująacych species mainly in northern Europe, including Iceland, Spitsbergen, Greenland and northern parts of Canada: M. glandulosus, Mesenchytraeus fittings, Helena nasuta, H. similis, Fridericia leydigi, H. perpusilla, Cernosvitoviella atrata, F . Ratz, Achaeta Eisenia, Buchholzia appendiculata. The Pieniny fifteen known species of earthworms. The predominant species among them, with wide ranges of so-called. cosmopolitan forms. Most species of earthworms found in Pieniny, both in the lower forest floor and in the foothills.
Leeches - in the waters of the Pieniny National Park, together with a wrapper, and there are poorly differentiated. So far been identified only 8 of the 27 species known from the Polish P. respirans, Piscicola surveyor, Haemopis sanguisuga, Helobdella stagnalis, Glossiphonia complanata, E. Vilnensis, Erpobdella octoculata, Hemiclepsis marginata.
Niesporczaki - occur at 27 of the 99 species identified on Polish territory. These species occur in all areas where you can find all kinds of mosses. Others are virtually unknown in Poland. In terms of animal wealth in the world second only Tatrom Pieniny, thanks to a favorable altitude, habitat diversity and the specific surface. The Pieniny dominated mainly zasadowolubne niesporczaków variety. The most popular species is the species Echiniscus granulatus.
Crustaceans - Of the variety of water crustaceans found only 9 species of copepods: rakowce - obunogi and parasitic Basanistes huchonis: studniczka - Niphargus tatrensis, scuds - balcanicus Gammarus and G. fossarum - most common freshwater scuds.Were diagnosed with the presence of 27 ostracod species, of which 18 species are competent sources and underground waters. Among them is a surprise fauna so far known only from the vicinity of Brussels Romeis rivulorum. Crayfish are represented only by Astacus Astacus, or crayfish. Cancer is a good indicator of environmental pollution, as they appeared back in the Dunajec says. Virtually disappeared a few years ago. This could mean a significant clean up the Dunajec. Pieniny terrestrial crustacean group consists of 15 species. Given the small area it takes to Pieniny National Park, it puts him in a number of the wealthiest regions in Poland.
Spiders - The Pieniny are 304 species of spiders. The varieties are similar to those we meet in the Beskid Mountains and the Krakow-Czestochowa Jura. The most numerous species are very widely rozsiedlone, mostly Euro-Siberian and European. Side by side for some common species of thermophile and mountain and sucholubne. Most species are described in the Pieniny thermophilous meadow (97 species) and in the Carpathian beech forest and a thermophilic (87 species). Two species: Zelotes kodaensis - found in southern Europe and Lepthyphantes lepthyphantiformis - kserotermofilny species known from the Czech Republic. Pieniny are only the position of occurrence in Poland. It is also known Lepthyphantes milleri was the only putative Carpathian endemic species.
Mites - The level of awareness Pieniny mite is diverse, relatively incomplete. At present, identified over 300 species belonging to two orders: Gamasida (248 species) - these are mostly forms of predatory and parasitic, living in soil, plants, insects, nests, birds and mammals and Oribatida - Oribatida (52 species) - which are numerous in soil, which in most saprofagami and fungofagami. The presence of several species of mite fauna of southern differs from the fauna of the Pieniny and the Tatra Mountains Beskydy.Such are: L. undulatus, Calyptophthiracarus pavidus, Platyliodes Scaliger, Allodamaaeus femoratus, Licnodamaeus pulcherrimus, Gymnodamaaeus bicostatus, Licneremaeus licnophorus, Phauloppia pilosa, Scutovertex minutus. Lonely mountain species in the fauna of the Pieniny is Heminothrus humicolus below 700 m above sea level virtually unprecedented in Poland.
Kosarze - a small group of 15 species. Are most numerous in beech and spruce forests.Only two species Platybunus bucephalus and Gyas titanus are among the typical mountain.
Zaleszczotki - identified 10 species, of which four belong to the Carpathian element.They are: Mundochthonius carpaticus - occurring after the Pieniny Czarnohora, Chthonius heterodactylus and Neobisium brevidigitatum - known in Poland Pieniny and Bieszczady. Neobisium carpaticum also occurs outside the Pieniny and Bieszczady was also recognized in Roztocze.
Writhes - it includes wielonogie ściółkowo and soil arthropods currently recognized, only four, separated by systematyków, a dissenting group in the rank of clusters. These are millipedes, 25 species in the Pieniny, centipedes 23 species in the Pieniny, skąponogi 2 species and in Pieniny drobnonogi. Pieniny flora species of millipedes make up the Tatras in a somewhat depleted team. From the fauna of the Tatra Mountains, differs presence of two species: Leptoiulus bakonyensis and Cylidroiulus burzenlandicus for which Pieniny is the only place occurrence in Poland. Among the 19 species pareczników is common with the fauna of Tatra, and four species in the mountains there are: lowland forest Lithobius agilis, synantropijny Brachygeophilus truncorum and 2 species typical mountain: Strigamia transsilvatica and east-Lithobius tenebrosus setiger.
Wingless insects - 133 species found skoczogonek. Twenty-four species of pierwogonek, derailleurs two species, two species and one species widłogonek rybika.PPN is a typical area for four pierwogonek, fourteen species and one species skoczogonek derailleurs. Seven out of the midst of them have been found anywhere outside of Pieniny. These are springtails - Neanurella Szeptycki, Superodontella montemaceli, Onychiurus januarii, Jevania weinerae, Micraphorura pieninensis, pierwogonki - Acerentulus collaris, Eosentomon wanda. The most interesting from the zoogeographical point of view are endemic Carpathian: springtails - Morulina verrucosa, pierwogonki - Acerentomon skuhravyi and A. oreophilon. Several species of wingless in the Pieniny reaches its northern limit of coverage, and has isolated only in the position of Poland. Also found here a very rare species known from a single function: Ceratophysella merydionalis - Pieniny and a position in Dynarskich Alps Xenylla subacauda - Caucasus and Pieniny, Neanura minutes - Pieniny and several positions in Bosnia, Doutnacia xerophila - Pieniny and a position in the Czech Republic, Arrhopalites spinosus - Low Tatras and Pieniny.
Mayflies - this group is poorly resolved in Pieniny. So far, only fifty-one described species. Due to the high pollution of streams and rivers, and the changing nature of the trough Dunajec rapidly declining number of mayflies living in Pieniny watercourses.There is a complete high-altitude species, the mountain there are only two Beatis melanonyx and Beatis alpinus.
Prostoskrzydłe, earwigs and cockroaches - The Pieniny occurs six species of cockroaches, 44 species and 4 species prostoskrzydłych skorków - 67% of the national fauna. Mountain species represented by Isophya pienensis - Isophya brevipennis - Carpathian species known from the Babia Mountain, Tatra, Gorce, Pieniny and Bieszczady and Pieniny probably subendemit, Pholidoptera Aptera slovaca, Tetrix wagai, Chorthippus eisentrauti - his position with the Central Pieniny is probably only known in Europe median. Several species reach the northern border of the Pieniny range.
Lice - Pieniny lice are poorly understood. Described so far only four species: Haematopinus acanthopus - closely related to rodents, Polyplax serrata and H. affinis - related to mice, H. edentula - everywhere related to the voles ore.
Siatkoskrzydłe - eighteen species. Deserve attention: M. tortricoides, Megalomus hirtus - 2 positions in Poland, the land in the Pieniny and Równica B. Slaski, Micromuse lanosus, Hemerobius contumax.
Stoneflies - these animals are one of the best indicators of water purity. The Pieniny identified 57 species, 4 of them were on the red list of endangered and threatened animals in Poland. Water pollution and dam construction Dunajec caused a drastic decrease in the number of species of stoneflies and population size. In the early nineties counted only seven species: Dinocras cephalotes, Leuctra armata, Perlodes microcephala, L. inermis, L. handlirshi, L. hippopus, L. Mortoni.
Dragonflies - in Pieniny are 38 of the 72 species occurring throughout the country. The number of dragonfly species increased significantly after filling the tank Czorsztyńskie, although there is no relevant species and only once Pieninom. The most interesting species - Hemianax ephippiger, the African-Asian immigrant and Sympecma braueri.
June - are relatives of the popular pluskwiakami aphids. Females are always wingless, ephemeral males are devoid of organs gębowych. In the Pieniny 58 species identified.The most interesting is Xylococcus filiferus - living under the bark of lime trees, in addition to the Pieniny found near Mount Zelejowej Chęciny and fathers.
Piewiki - 204 species, but only 6 of them are classified as typical of species of mountain: Cixius alpestris, C. haupti, Errhomenus brachypterus, Chlorionidea flava, Kybos strobli, Erythria montandoni. The species known in Poland only with Pieniny: Chlorionidea flava - Mediterranean species extending to the Caucasus, Hauptidia distinguenda - occurs in Cyprus, Israel and Armenia, in the Pieniny Gorge Homole, Handianus flavovarius. Most leafhoppers live on młace eutrophic, about 69 species, 57 species Olszynka Carpathian and Pieniny meadows Species 52.
Beetles - according to recent studies in the Pieniny 1507 species alive. Most strongly represented are: ryjkowcowate 297 species, most interesting here: Ceutorhynchus lukesi - wapieniolubny Pannonian, C. chlorophanus - Pontic-Mediterranean species, S. languidus, Larinus brevis, Tychius crassirostris, Otiorhynchus opulentus, Acalles petryszaki - East Carpathian endemics, Donus velutinus, D. viennensis - Carpathian endemics. Acalles suturatus, Sitona longulus, Ceutorhynchus unguicularis, C. magnini, S. inops, T. Aureolus, T. breviusculus, Phrydiuchus topiarius, C. ornatus, beetles (188 species) the most valuable: Carabus obsoletus - Carpathian endemic species, also found 14 protected species of the genus Carabus, rare fauna include intricatus C. and C. nitens. Nebria rufescens - Mountain boreal relict species, Trechus latus - endemic, ogólnokarpacki, T. Pulp - subendemiczny, east-, T. Pulchellus - common in the Pieniny, the Sudeten-Carpathian subendemit, Pterostichus foveolatus and P. pilosus - mezoalpejskie Carpathian endemics, ABAX schueppeli rendschmidti - endemic subspecies mezoalpejski zachdniokarpacki, Calathus Metallicus - mezoalpejski Balkan-alpine species. ROVE (179 grade), the most valuable: Stenus maculiger - mountains of south-eastern Europe from Asia Minor, Carpelimus punctatellus - kserotermofilny, subpontyjski, Atheta episcopalis - Southern, Sipalia Carpathica - subendemit east-, Sipalia eximia - Carpathian endemic, Atheta autumnalis - boreal-mountain , Philonthus puella - boreal-mountain, kózkowate (80 species): Plagionotus floralis - thermophilic Sibero-Pontic, Carilia excellens (Sichrawa Carpathian) - Carpathian endemic species - one of the greatest faunistic rarity on the European scale, Rosalia alpina (alpine Nadobnica) - zachodniopaleoarktyczny very rare species, sprężykowate (57 species): Fletiauxellus maritimua - boreal-mountain, Lacon lepidopterus, Denticollis rubens, Agriotes gallicus - north-eastern limit of range, only the position in Poland, Quasimus minutissimus - Southern leaf beetles (76 species): Phyllotreta christiane - Southern mountain species, Oreina speciosissima - Mountain, Oulema septentrionis - boreal-mountain, Chrysolina chalcites, Longitarsus nanus - Mediterranean-Pontic pędrusiowate (61 species): Apion gribodoi - Pontic-Mediterranean, the only position in Poland żukowate (55 gat .) Aphodius thermicola, Maladera holoserica, Anisoplia segetum, Hoplia graminicola, H. subnuda - the species of thermophilic origin of southern bark beetles (54 grade): pływakowate (44 species): Hydroporus furrugineus, Deronectes platynotus - mountain species associated with the clear waters of the Great Fountainpeculiarities of the world in the Pieniny beetles are also Ceruchus chrysomelinus (Wynurt) - protected Bryaxis ruthenus - subendemit east-, Bryaxis frivaldszkyi - zachodniokarpacki endemic.
Water bugs - we have 31 species in the Pieniny. The most interesting are: Corix affinis - rowers have known in Poland only in the area of Babia, Notonecta viridis mediterranea - East Mediterranean subspecies recognized outside the Pieniny only in the Tatras.
Trichoptera - 82 species, including two endemic Carpathian: Potamophylax carpathicus and Drusus brunneus. It is possible to enlarge the list to the next twenty species, including four endemic Carpathian. Pieniny are the only known place in Poland the species wapieniolubnego Rhyacophila pubescens.
Wasps - the Pieniny identified 911 species in this; wasps (6), ants (55), nasteczniki (3), digger-wasp (9), bees (192), gall (13), rośliniarki (113), bleskotki (16), gąsieniczniki (598), Chrysidoidea (18).
Butterflies - not yet identified species in the Pieniny 1555, which represents approximately 55% of the Polish fauna. They belong to all the families that occur in Poland. As everywhere, most strongly represented are sówkowate (Noctuidae), miernikowcowate (Geometridae) and omacnicowate (Pyralidae). Eighty-nine species of thermophile were considered - the most interesting: Parnassius apollo, Cauchas leucocerella, Z. osterodensis, Scythris obscurella, S. fuscoaenea, Zygaena brizae, Phaulernis dentella, Epermenia illigerella, Oxyptillus parvidactylus, Pterophorus nephelodatylus, Celeophora frishella, C. alcyonipennella, Pancalia leuwenhoekkella , Ypsolopha juniperella, Eana canescana, Prochlidonia Amiante, Chrysocrambus Craterellus, Cynaeda dentalis, Scotopteryx bipunctaria, Eupithecia venosata, Tephrina murinaria, Bryophila domestica Chersotis multangula. Twenty species were found to be nearby, such as: Adela albicinctella, Gesneria centuriella, Eudonia phaeoleuca, Colostygia kollariana, Entephria cyanata, Rhopalognophos glaucinarius, Apamea rubrirena, A. platinea, Erebia Euryale, Elophos dilucidarius, Dasypolia Templi.
Flies - are identified in the Pieniny poorly. 827 described species, representing almost 13% of the fauna in Poland. Among the predominant species of flies Pieniny European and eurosyberyjski. Many are also boreal-mountain and mountain. Much is kserotermofilnych species - the largest in the Polish mountains. Four species of the family Agromyzidae identified in the Pieniny are new to science, but here only several tens of familiar position in Poland. It is speculated that in the Pieniny can live for up to four thousand species of flies.
Reptiles and amphibians - were found in the Pieniny ten amphibian species: spotted salamander, toad mountain, alpine newt, Carpathian, wheat and newt, toad and green frog trawna and water. Reptiles are represented by lizards: Zwink and viviparous, worms, Grass Snake ordinary, smooth snake and adder. The existence of a ZZW Czorsztyn-Niedzica and Sromowce Wyżne at the border of the PPN led to a significant reduction in the population, especially amphibians. Filling the tank caused the destruction liczncyh breeding these animals. In order to stem further decline in abundance of amphibians Park has undertaken a number of protective measures of existing migration routes and habitats, particularly near public roads.
Mammals - Pieniny were found in 61 species of mammals, this represents over 69% of the national fauna. Government insectivorous represent: shrew, Common Shrew, Hedgehog east, mole, shrew, rzęsorek smaller zębiełek whitish, zębiełek Karliczek, water shrew. The Government of bats: lesser horseshoe bat, Daubenton's bat Brandt, pond bat, Daubenton's bat, Myotis myotis, wąsatek bat, bat Netterera, scotoma plated, pozłocisty scotoma, scotoma late, greater dwarf, dwarf tiny borowiaczek, noctule big, brown bat, gray bat, mopek. The Government of lagomorphs: rabbits, hare hare.Rodents are most strongly represented: squirrel, muskrat, red voles, amphibious grubber, vole, mouse, herbaceous, scrub the mouse, mouse, forestry, smudge, darniówka wheat, bury vole, vole ordinary, house mouse, rat, wandering, badylarka, żołędnica, Dewberry, orzesznica. The Government of prey: the bear, wolf - sporadically occurring in Pieniny, fox, badger, otter, pine marten, beech marten, polecat ordinary, stoat, weasel grace, lynx, wild cat. The Government of hoofed wild boar, roe deer, red deer. Large mammals in the Pieniny are few because of the small area of the strip and the surrounding built-up areas impeding migration.
Fish - In the area of Pieniny live in the river 17 species of fish. Currently, the most numerous are the pig, barbel, chub, grayling. Salmonid species, ie the Danube river trout, or representatives głowaczowatych: bullhead białopłetwy prego-and, unfortunately, are in the Dunajec longer a rarity. Salmon does not occur. Increases while the number of species characteristic of lowland rivers: bream, bleak, roach, tench. Changing the composition of the fish fauna is due to the existence of a lake. Establishment of the dam resulted in normalization of flow of the river, the increase in water temperature. These factors contribute to reduced self-purification capacity of rivers. Averaging the flow and persistent, despite the construction of sewage treatment networks, high levels of nutrients delivered to the river it effectively eliminates the mountain species.
Birds - high diversity of habitats, forests and the existence of water bodies means that the number of birds in the Pieniny reaches 188 species, of which 134 involve hatch. One of the most interesting species are very rare Wallcreeper, living in limestone cliffs. On the shelves inaccessible rock kestrel nests well, and occasionally nagórniki Ravens. The latter reaches the northern boundary in the Pieniny range. After ten years led by shares in the Pieniny founded the reintroduction of slot pair of peregrine falcons - the bird the extreme danger of extinction in Poland, lives only about 10 pairs. Are most numerous in the Pieniny forest birds. Most of them are: hazel grouse, black stork, pied woodpeckers gray and black, and three-toed woodpecker, nutcracker, Yahoo Messenger, or thrush Black-tit. Owls are represented by the eagle, an owl-eared, hairy owl, owl, owl, and a very rare, the smallest of our owls - pygmy owl. Among the large predators are most numerous buzzards. Open areas: meadows, forest clearings, farmlands typical resident of these areas: partridge, quail, cierniówki, Stonechat, larks. In humid areas near the river Dunajec can meet corncrakes, which features hard, dwusylabowe "krret-krret in the summer can be heard after sunset. Associated with aquatic environment include: little ringed plover, kingfishers, brzegówka, dipper, Grey Wagtail and many species of ducks.Increasingly, you can meet a seagull Gull and tern ordinary. More than a dozen bird species in the Pieniny been recognized as extremely vulnerable. Please note that the all bird species in Poland are subject to strict protection. Exceptions are game birds and the magpie, hooded crow, rook, and herons, which are subject to periodic security during breeding.
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